Worm ( endoparasite) infections in dogs are frequently
seen in the UK. Young animals have a lower resistance to infection and given that unborn pups can be infected whilst still
in their mothers' womb via the blood, or immediately after their birth via the colostrum, it is most important to start
worming pups from about 2 weeks of age.
What Types Of Worm Infections Are There?
These worms are spaghetti-like in appearance and non-segmented. Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina are both
seen in the UK. A heavy infestation can cause a pot-bellied appearance, diarrhoea and result in a poor growth rate. Toxacara
canis can also affect humans, causing a variety of symptoms and in rare instances, blindness in children.
These worms are segmented and can grow to several feet in length.
The small head of the worm fastens to the lining of the small intestine and the main body of the worm trails downstream. The
adult worm sheds segments, which are full of eggs and can often be seen around the anus or on the stools. They resemble grains
These worms suck blood
from the lining of the gut and can cause serious anaemia and internal bleeding. Hookworms can also cause skin disease as infective
larvae are able to burrow directly into the exposed skin.
Like hookworms, these worms are blood-suckers living in the lining of the small intestine. They can cause bloody
diarrhoea and weight loss.
What Can We Do To Control Worm Infections?
Given that worm infections are so common in the UK, the prevention
of infection is practically impossible. Control is based on a regular quarterly treatment with a drug that will kill worms.
These may be given orally as powders, tablets or suspension as well as
by 'spot-ons', and even injections in
some instances. It should be noted that not all worm groups are killed by all of the available drugs, so it is important to
gain advice as to which products are suitable for your pets needs.
all in one dewormer is a highly effective treatment for either roundworm or tapeworm. Clinically proven the tablets are easy
to use, requiring staggered doses to help keep your dog healthy and worm free.
PANACUR GRANULES are tasteless, odourless granules that can be dissolved into the dogs' food making medication easy. The granules
contain the drug fenbendazole which is effective against all roundworm and most tapeworm infections.
PANACUR FAVOURITES are the same drug in tablet formulation that are given like a treat to the pet.
PANACUR PASTE is the same drug in paste formulation so that it can be given directly into the patient's mouth.
PANACUR SUSPENSION is the same drug in a liquid suspension and can be added directly to the food.
DRONTAL PLUS and DRONTAL PLUS XL are tablets containing a combination of pyrantel embonate, febantel and praziquantel offering complete round- and
DRONTAL PUPPY SUSPENSION is the same combination of drugs (a combination of pyrantel embonate, febantel and praziquantel) but in a suspension
that can be mixed into the food.'Stronghold'
is a 'spot-on' preparation, currently available only through your veterinary surgeon, that treats roundworms, fleas
and some types of mange. It DOES NOT treat tapeworm infections.
What worming programme has been
used on your puppy ?
The worming programme that has been used on the Androlitate puppy litter is Panacur
Paste for puppies and dogs.
The puppies are treated at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks from the birth date. They
are next due to be wormed at 12 weeks of age where you can consider using the Advocat Spot on Solution monthly and a Drontal
Worming Tablet every 3 months
is largely governed by energy intake and gut fill but can be significantly affected by individual animal tendencies
and how tasty the food being offered is. Each animal has a maintenance requirement which is the energy necessary for all the
resting bodily functions such as the beating of a heart and the constant action of nerve and muscle fibres. Above this is
the requirement for voluntary activity such as running and playing. Every animal has its own rate and efficiency of use for
these activities which makes it impossible to create a reliable formula for food requirement. Dogs (and cats to a lesser extent)
will eat excessively simply because the food tastes good, a phenomena which gave rise to pet food advertising with statements
like "eight out of ten cats prefer it" and the counter advertisement by hills science diet which states below a
large photograph of sweets and ice cream that "eight out of ten children may prefer it".
Types of food
vary enormously but can be broken down
into those which which are 'complete', or those which form only a part of a diet such as 'mixer' biscuits.
Complete feeds provide all the necessary nutrients discussed below and do not require any additional food provision. Food
may also be dry or moist. Traditional feeding was typically based on a canned moist food with mixer biscuits. Many of the
earlier dry feeds were poorly balanced and particularly in cats, predisposed them to kidney failure and other problems. Dry
foods are now much improved and many reputable manufacturers provide dry or moist equivalents of the same food brand, the
only difference being the moisture content. It is always very important when giving a dry diet to provide adequate fresh water
as the requirement is not present in feed. Cystitis can be a problem even in the best balanced dry food if water intake is
inadequate. Dry or crunchy foods also have a significant benefit on cleaning a pets teeth and indeed specific diets such as
Hills 'T/d' are available for this purpose.
The feeding regime is how much and how often our pets are fed. There is an established
pattern to feed dogs and cats once daily, but there is little good reason to follow this and indeed twice daily feeding has
many benefits. More regular salivation improves dental hygiene, smaller meals are easier to digest, and more frequent feeding
reduces boredom and begging problems. Of significant importance in deep chested and large breed of dog is the prevention of
gastric bloat and torsion which can be induced by large meals, particularly if followed by exercise. Gastric bloat and torsion
is a life threatening emergency requiring immediate veterinary intervention.
Bones and chews.
Vets will almost always
advise that bones and often chews are avoided due to frequent problems when large fragments are swallowed. These can obstruct
and even perforate the bowel. However, there are benefits with these, particularly to dental health, and some dogs can tolerate
large bones very well. Chews such as Rasks, Royal Canin's Mini Oral Bar and CET chews are a much safer option.
Always consult your own veterinary surgeon before giving bones to a pet.
Never give poultry bones, as these often produce sharp fragments when chewed.
food has an energy value. Carbohydrates are essentially sugars and provide a rich source of energy. Simple sugars such as
glucose and dextrose are readily available 'instant-energy'. Starches are readily digested into simple sugars and
are derived from potatoes, rice, pasta and other common plant and cereal sources. Starches form a major constituent of many
diets as they provide a ready energy source that is more sustained and filling than the simple sugars. Non- digestible carbohydrates
form fibre and allow your pet to form a bulky faecal stool. Fibre is generally not broken down by simple stomached animals
like dogs or cats, but allows digestion of the other nutrients and formation of a regular, firm, healthy stool. Insufficient
dietary fibre can often result in diarrhoea and anal gland problems. The requirement for carbohydrates is governed by the
weight and activity of our pets. Active animals have a greater need, obese animals and often older animals have much less.
Specific diets are formulated to meet these needs, such as Royal Canin's 'Obesity' and various geriatric diets.
Animals with poor digestion can be helped by a higher fibre, slower digested diet such as Hills i/d. Diabetic animals also
are unable to cope well with simple sugars and require a higher fibre food such as Royal Canin's Diabetic diet, or Hills
Protein provides animals with essential building blocks, the amino acids, which go to make
up muscles but are present in almost all body tissues. Certain amino acids can be synthesised by the animal itself, others
cannot and are termed 'essential amino acids'. These must be provided in the diet. Sources of protein are traditionally
meat but alternatives are available and dogs can have a balanced meat-free diet. Cereals, chicken, fish and soya are common
sources of protein. The protein that our pets eat is largely digested in the bowel and absorbed as the constituent amino acids,
which are then broken down and assimilated in the liver and other body tissues. The result is the correct balance of amino
acids for the individuals needs, coupled with waste nitrogen products - many of which are excreted through the kidneys.
Kidney failure results in the nitrogen waste products failing to be excreted into the urine. Urea is measured in blood
to evaluate kidney failure, which affects about 75% of older cats. These cats still have protein requirement to maintain tissue
bulk, often high requirements, but it is essential that only the most readily utilized protein is provided through their diet.
Diets such as hills k/d utilize specific ingredients to achieve the correctly balanced diet. Growing dogs
and active sporting dogs will also have greater requirement provided by life stage diets, available from many manufacturers.
is essential that diets contain a small amount of fat. Fat provides a more concentrated but less available source of energy
than the carbohydrates. This means that a high fat diet can increase obesity but a balanced diet containing fat will satisfy
the appetite better than a low fat, high carbohydrate diet.
Essential fatty acids are so termed because like the
fat soluble vitamins A, D, and E, they cannot be synthesised by the animal but are necessary for normal healthy skin, immune,
hormone, and other body systems. Occasionally supplementation is necessary for dry skin conditions. Reputable products such
as Efavet capsules and viacutan liquid have been specifically designed for use in dogs and cats. Evening Primrose oil has also been traditionally
used as a supplement in many skin disorders If appetite is poor, flavour becomes important and it is fat that adds the flavour
to many foods, especially meats. Warming food can also enhance flavour.
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI)
is a disease
where the pancreas fails to secrete the enzymes amylase and lipase essential to digest dietry fat. The result is greasy, soft,
often white faeces. The disease is especially common in German Shepherd Dogs but can be present in other breeds too. Reducing
the fat levels in the diet can help but usually it is necessary to supplement each meal with the deficient enzymes. Products
such as Pancrex, Lypex, or Panzym Powder are available for this purpose.
Vitamins And Minerals
Vitamins are essential nutrients without which many normal body functions are
impossible. They are either water or fat soluble and must be be present to meet RDA (recommended daily allowance) in any balanced
diet. It is not necessary or advisable to supplement a complete diet with vitamins without the advice of your veterinary surgeon.
are the raw elements which are required in varying quantities and are termed
'macro' or 'micro' minerals, dependant on the quantity necessary for life.
calcium, necessary for development of teeth and bones and present in the body in large quantities. Balanced supplements are
available for specific situations such as late pregnancy and suckling young. Supplying individual minerals is not recommended,
as each one affects others and unnecessary supplementation may upset a fine natural balance. Micro-minerals such as copper
or selenium are only required in very small amounts and again the correct balance is essential for tissue health and development,
as well as normal immune and other functions. Supplementation of micro-minerals is only usually recommended under veterinary
supervision. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements such as SA37 for growth and during lactation can be considered, especially in
large breeds, but often it is better to use an appropriate complete life stage diet.
There are many causes
of diarrhoea; from dietary excess, indiscretion, intolerance and allergies to parasites such as worms or protozoa and infections.
Many can be controlled by dietary changes alone, for others specific treatments are necessary. Historically Kaolin has been
used as a binding agent but this is not well accepted by most cats or dogs. Now modern treatments that are far more palatable
such as Canikur tablets and Canikur granules for cats or smaller dogs are available. Pro-Kolin paste for dogs and cats can be very effective. During
recovery from many operations ailments and digestive upsets pro-biotic can be given to help restore the natural bacterial
or yeasts present within the digestive tract, Protexin provides a range of products suitable for cats, dogs, rabbits and horses.While it is generally acceptable
to withdraw food for 12-48 hours for pets with diarrhoea adequate provision of fresh clean water must always be available.
Whenever diarrhoea persists beyond 1 or 2 days dehydration can be a very serious concern and a proper evaluation should be
made by your veterinarian.
Geriatric pets have altered nutritional needs. Often the appetite is reduced and
activity can be less but at the same time it is important to ensure adequate mineral vitamin and protein provision to maintain
often wasting muscle mass. In many cases specific diets to suit certain geriatric diseases are of paramount importance, and
advise in these cases should always be sought from your veterinarian. When animals are old (cats and dogs typically over eight
years of age) it may be enough just to adopt a lifestyle diet from one of the established manufacturers such as Hills, Iams,
Royal Canin/ Walthon ( RCW ) or Purina.
Special Prescription Diets
Special Prescription Diets are so called because they are generally only provided
through a veterinary surgeon. Examples include:-Kidney diets commonly given to cats with chronic renal failure. These diets contain
minimal salt, fat and protein, and the most digestable proteins and carbohydrates. The idea is to minimise the waste products
of digestion which create many of the clinical signs of disease, whilst maintaining tissue mass to prevent wasting. Most commercial
diets are based on chicken and rice, examples include Hills k/d and Royal Canin Renal diet.
Dental diets aim to
maximise chewing and salivation while scaping the surface of the teeth and penetrating the gaps between the teeth. The principal
of the diet is to provide the right shape and consistency of biscuit with minimal sugars and deposit. Examples include Hills
diets must provide a slowly digested and absorbed carbohydrate source to maintain level blood glucose concentration. This
is generally achieved by providing high fibre with low fat and simple sugar levels.
Examples include Hills i/d
and Royal Canin Diabetic diets.Sensitivity diets are provided for dogs with food allergies or intolerances. Generally common allergens such
as wheat glutens are avoided, there is a high fibre inclusion, and protein and carbohydrate are provided from novel sources.
There is a great variety of products available from chicken and rice based foods such as Hills i/d to capelin and tapioca
diets and Royal Canins Sensitivity control . Atopy, or allergic skin disease, can also be supported by the use of many of
these diets when a veterinarian has diagnosed food allergic dermatitis.
Obesity diets are well provided to contain the
minimal calories with the maximum gut-fill. There is usually a very high fibre content, and many have biscuits expanded with
air and designed scientifically to swell in the stomach giving a 'full' feeling. Examples include Hills r/d and Royal
What feeding programme has
been used on your puppy ?
The feeding programme that has been used on the Androlitate puppy litter is the
Wagg Complete Puppy Food, i use this as a base and add a small supplementary amount of raw fresh eggs, filtered
pasteurised homogenised milk, olive oil, cod liver oil, tuna, chicken and fresh water.
Please see feed sheet
further down for allowance guidance
Please find these details as a guide, this is what my Dogs
have been brought up on and different breeders and vets have varied opinions, I am sure you will do your own research and
take advice from a qualified vet, you have seen my adult dogs, they are in great shape.
The Average English Springer
Spaniel Adult weight is 15 to 25kg depending on build
your own puppy/dog on a weekly/monthly basis
Please note, this is important !
The Ideal Body Condition: monitor your puppy on a weekly basis
Underfed: waist and ribs highly visible: increase the feeding amount
by 10% to promote healthy growth, compare again after 4-6 weeks and with the feeding guide adjust to ideal body condition.
Ideal Body Condition: you can see and feel the ribs, belly
tucked up at the back: maintain the current feeding amount. Reassess weekly.
Overfed: you cannot see and feel the ribs, belly rounded at the back:
decrease the recommended feeding amount by 10% to promote healthy growth, compare again after 4-6 weeks and with the feeding
guide and adjust to the The ideal Body Condition
Guide for all Wagg complete dry dog foods
our complete dry dog food products can be fed dry or moistened with cold or warm water in a recommended ratio of 1 part water to 2 parts food. Just
make sure you always provide a bowl of clean fresh water. To switch from another food to a Wagg complete dry dog food gradually introduce over a 5 to 7 day period. All our adult complete dog food products can be fed to all dogs from 8 - 12 weeks onwards, but this can vary depending on breed, please consult your vet
if you need further advice. Try not to overfeed and give your dog as much exercise as possible. See the tables below for suggested
Puppies and growing dogs should generally be fed according to appetite where possible, but the tables
below show suggested daily amounts.
Feeding Wagg Puppy:
After weaning, Wagg puppy food provides a completely balanced diet that puppies and growing dogs can enjoy from 3 weeks onwards. To introduce Wagg puppy food, you should moisten the food with water or milk (approximately 1 part liquid to 2 parts food) and feed your puppy frequently
(3-4 meals a day). This can be reduced to 1-2 meals after 6 months.
Feeding other Wagg diets:
You should feed young and growing dogs
of 8 weeks and upwards at least 2-3 times a day. Once they get a bit older, say from 8-12 weeks, you should feed them up to
3 times a day and then twice a day from 12-24 weeks. Once they have past the 24 week mark, keep it to once or twice a day.
Bitches in whelp
need up to 50% more than their normal intake from mid pregnancy onwards. Lactating bitches need up to 4 times as much feed
as their normal intake.
Got a dog with a weight problem?:
See our Body Condition Scoring & Dieting - Don’t worry too much if your dog has a weight problem. There is plenty you can do to sort it out. Try feeding Fido
a bit less food and moisten it with water, leave it to soak for 5 minutes while the food swells which will satisfy the dog
but contains fewer calories!
Got a fussy eater?:
Then moisten the food, heat it in a microwave for up to 1 minute and then allow to cool.
The mini kibbles from Wagg puppy food make great rewards for training - tasty, but wholesome, treats.
|Wagg Original/Chicken & Veg, Wagg Premium, Wagg Worker, Sensitive (Gluten Free) & Wagg
Light and Senior|
|Size of Dog||Dog Weight||Daily Amount|
|Young||8 weeks upwards||See Feeding Guide
|75 - 200g|
|200 - 400g|
44 - 88lbs
|400 - 600g|
|600 - 600g+|
A teacup is approximately 100g.Feeding Guide
|Dog Weight||3-6 weeks||6-12
weeks||3-4 months||4-6 months||6-12
|*||30g - 60g||35g
- 55g||25g - 45g||20g - 40g|
|*||110g - 300g||105g - 300g||90g - 250g||75g - 200g|
|*||300g - 600g||280g - 550g||250g - 500g||200g - 400g|
|-||-||550g - 850g||500g -
700g||400g - 600g|
|* To introduce Wagg Puppy food, moisten with water
or milk and feed frequently.|
A teacup is approximately 100g.
If you have any questions about the range, your
pet's health, diet or general care please visit the frequently asked questions section or alternatively get in touch.
The Pet Advisory Department will do their best to answer any queries you may have.Please call on 01845 578111 or drop them an email to firstname.lastname@example.org
you prefer to write to them, you can contact them at "Freepost WAGG FOODS" (No stamp or postcode required).
The full address is:
Remember, you will
need to use the correct postage for items sent to this address.